Monographs are produced by, or on behalf of, LTG for the purpose of public education in analytical toxicology.
To read/download a monograph, please click on its title (.pdf format).
Historically, bupropion (amfebutamone) has been available in the U.S. as an antidepressant (Wellbutrin®). It is structurally unrelated to other antidepressants but has a therapeutic efficacy similar to tricyclic antidepressants. However, it has recently been prescribed in the U.K. as a smoking cessation adjunct (Zyban®). It is not prescribed in the U.K. as an antidepressant.
Although the neurochemical effect of bupropion is not completely understood, there is evidence that it may block dopamine re-uptake and block serotonin and noradenaline uptake. It does not appear to inhibit monoamine oxidase.
Spice and similar herbal smoking mixtures containing cannabinoid receptor agonists can be detected by high resolution mass spectrometry. This monograph, will focus on the several compounds which have been detected in "Spice" type "herbal incense" in various European countries or the USA.
Over the past few months (Autumn 2006) members of LTG have become aware of an increasing number of piperazine compounds sold on websites as "herbal ecstasy". They are often promoted as a legal alternative to MDMA, and sometimes as a "harm minimisation" strategy. The health consequences of their widespread availability are beginning to emerge with reports of hospitalisations and involvement in road accidents.
In this monograph you can find chromatogram and mass spectra of a typical case sample of 4-FA powder, presumably sold on the street as "amphetamine" in the UK. Sample was analysed on a Shimadzu QP2010 gas chromatograph mass spectrometer with an HP5MS column (30m x 0.25mm, 0.50μm).
Cathinone is a pharmacologically active (stimulant) alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the Khat plant (Catha edulis). Khat leaves are chewed recreationally in parts of East Africa to produce a mild high much like caffeine from tea and coffee. Human metabolism of cathinone produces cathine and norpseudoephedrine, that are structurally similar to amfetamine and adrenaline. Cathine is one of the optical isomers of phenylpropanolamine, an appetite suppressant and nasal decongestant.
Methylone is a beta-keto analogue of MDMA (Ecstasy). It is also known as bk-MDMA, M1, or MDMCat. Methylone is more properly known as 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone and is related to methcathinone as MDMA is related to methamphetamine and MDA is to amphetamine. In spite of some substantial pharmacokinetic differences (its dopaminergic activity is far more pronounced relative to its serotonergic activity), methylone is an empathogen-like drug and a mild stimulant, producing effects similar to, yet less intense than MDMA.
Three compounds controlled by the generic legislation of the UK Misuse of Drugs Act in Schedule 1 as Class A are profiled in this monograph. DOB (PIHKAL #62) is also known as bromo-STP or brolamfetamine. It has both hallucinogenic and sympathomimetic properties and is a much more potent compound than MDMA with a long duration of action. DOC (PIHKAL #64) is a rare compound which has only been seen in Sweden, Finland, USA and the UK. DOI (PIHKAL #67) has hallucinogenic properties and may be confused with LSD by inexperienced users.